Tuesday, 27 December 2011

The story of Habeel and Qabeel

Prophet Adam (PBUH) had a number of children. His first two were called Qabeel (Cain) and his twin sister Eklema.

His second two were called Habeel (Abel) and his twin sister Labuda 1. The boys grew up and both had jobs - Habeel was a shephard and looked after the animals while Qabeel looked after the orchard andgrew fruit trees and vegetables.

It was customary in those days, as a sign of appreciation for the bounties of Allah, that people made material offerings to God in the form of burnings or slaughtering of livestock (of which they ate some parts so that it would not be a waste).

Cain [Qabeel] brought some fruits of the soil as an offering to the Lord. But Abel [Habeel] brought fat portions from some of the firstborn of his flock. The Lord looked with favor on Abel [Habeel] and his offering, but on Cain [Qabeel] and his offering he did not look with favour. So Cain [Qabeel] was very angry, and his face was downcast. [NIV Holy Bible. Genesis 4:3-5].

It isn't evidently clear what the reason is that God rejected the offering made by Qabeel. We are told that God says "... sin is crouching at your door;" [Genesis 4:7], but it is not clear what his sin was but it must have
angered God. Some people claim that Qabeel did not offer the best of his offerings, or making the offerings out of love and sincerity for Allah, while Habeel offered his best animal with true sincerity so it was accepted from him. Other reasons refer to it being something to do with finding the twin sister of his brother (or the celestial (houri) wife that God gave him) less attractive in his opinion.2

One further reason is from Shia thought...

Qabeel (Cain) killed Habeel (Abel) because Allah (swt) revealed to Adam (PBUH) to pass on the weights of Prophethood to Habeel. Qabeel grew jealous of his younger brother. He objected to his father that "I am older than him. Therefore, I'm more rightful to prophethood than he is." So he did not kill him because he married his sister. There might be some narrations and ahadeeth indicating that this was the reason for his murder, but apparently they are all weak and disregarded by the scholars. [M. Baqer Al-Qazwini]

In his anger and jelousy, Qabeel attacked Habeel and killed him. It is so shocking that in the second generation of mankind with only a handful of people on the face of the earth, a man kills another man! Such hadiths as that below exist to point out the utter distaste with this act, but such hadiths are not wholly accepted 3 by the Muslim Ummah.

The Prophet [Muhammed (SAW)] said, "No human being is killed unjustly, but a part of responsibility for the crime is laid on the first son of Adam who invented the tradition of killing (murdering) on the earth. (It is said that he was Qabeel). [Sahih Bukhari. Narrated by 'Abdullah] 3

Qabeel did not know what to do with the body. No other man on the face of the earth had died before. So, "Then Allah sent a crow digging up the earth so that he might show him how he should cover the dead body of his brother..." [Holy Koran 5.31]. That is why we must bury our dead and not cremate them. Allah showed us the correct method of dealing with corpses.

Now, the bible tells us that Qabeel had a son with his wife after escaping to live "in the land of Nod, east of Eden." [Genesis 4:16]. The son was called Enoch. Prophet Adam (PBUH) had a son called Shiith (Seth) in place of his murdered son.

"After Adam's death, his son Seth (Shiith) took over the responsibilities of prophethood, according to ahadith narrated by Abu Dhar. Abu Dhar narrated that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: "Allah sent downone hundred and four psalms, of which fifty were sent down to Seth." (Sahih al Bukhari).When the time of his death came Seth's son Anoush succeeded him. He in turn, was succeededby his son Qinan, who was succeeded by Mahlabeel." - "When he died his duties were taken over by his son Yard, who on his death, bequeathed them to his son Khonoukh, who is Idris (pbuh) according to the majority of the scholars (Ulama)." [Stories of the Prophets by Ibn Kathir].

If you read the Bible, Genesis 5; You will see that there are two people called Enoch. One was the son of Qabeel and was not a Prophet, and the other was the descendant of Shiith and was a Prophet. He is known as Prophet Idris (PBUH).



The Koranic verses relating to the story of Habeel and Qabeel

وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ ابْنَيْ آدَمَ بِالْحَقِّ إِذْ قَرَّبَا قُرْبَانًا فَتُقُبِّلَ مِن أَحَدِهِمَا وَلَمْ يُتَقَبَّلْ مِنَ الآخَرِ قَالَ لَأَقْتُلَنَّكَ قَالَ إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ



لَئِن بَسَطتَ إِلَيَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقْتُلَنِي مَا أَنَاْ بِبَاسِطٍ يَدِيَ إِلَيْكَ لَأَقْتُلَكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ



إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَن تَبُوءَ بِإِثْمِي وَإِثْمِكَ فَتَكُونَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّارِ وَذَلِكَ جَزَاء الظَّالِمِينَ



فَطَوَّعَتْ لَهُ نَفْسُهُ قَتْلَ أَخِيهِ فَقَتَلَهُ فَأَصْبَحَ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ




فَبَعَثَ اللّهُ غُرَابًا يَبْحَثُ فِي الأَرْضِ لِيُرِيَهُ كَيْفَ يُوَارِي سَوْءةَ أَخِيهِ قَالَ يَا وَيْلَتَا أَعَجَزْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِثْلَ هَـذَا الْغُرَابِ فَأُوَارِيَ سَوْءةَ أَخِي فَأَصْبَحَ مِنَ النَّادِمِينَ




مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَن قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَلَقَدْ جَاءتْهُمْ رُسُلُنَا بِالبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ إِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنْهُم بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فِي الأَرْضِ لَمُسْرِفُونَ


[5.27] And relate to them the story of the two sons of Adam with truth when they both offered an offering, but it was accepted from one of them and was not accepted from the other. He said:
I will most certainly slay you. (The other) said: Allah only accepts from those who guard (against evil).

[5.28] If you will stretch forth your hand towards me to slay me, I am not one to stretch forth my hand towards you to slay you surely I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds:

[5.29] Surely I wish that you should bear the sin committed against me and your own sin, and so you would be of the inmates of the fire, and this is the recompense of the unjust.

[5.30] Then his mind facilitated to him the slaying of his brother so he slew him; then he became one of the losers

[5.31] Then Allah sent a crow digging up the earth so that he might show him how he should cover the dead body of his brother. He said: Woe me! do I lack the strength that I should be like this crow and cover the dead body of my brother? So he became of those who regret.

[5.32] For this reason did We prescribe to the children of Israel that whoever slays a soul, unless it be for manslaughter or for mischief in the land, it is as though he slew all men; and whoever keeps it alive, it is as though he kept alive all men; and certainly Our apostles came to them with clear arguments, but even after that many of them certainly act extravagantly in the land.

The Biblical verses relating to the story of Habeel and Qabeel. (KJV) http://www.cforc.com/kjv/Genesis/index.html

Genesis 4
4:1 And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD.

4:2 And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.

4:3 And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD.

4:4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering:

4:5 But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

4:6 And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen?

4:7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.

4:8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

4:9 And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper?

4:10 And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.

4:11 And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand;

4:12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.

4:13 And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear.

4:14 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the
earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me.

4:15 And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.

4:16 And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.

4:17 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch.

4:18 And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech.

4:19 And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.

4:20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle.

4:21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.

4:22 And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.

4:23 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt.

4:24 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.

4:25 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.

4:26 And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD.

Genesis 5

5:1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;

5:2 Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.

5:3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, and after his image; and called his name Seth:

5:4 And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters:

5:5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died.

5:6 And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos:

5:7 And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters:

5:8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died.

5:9 And Enos lived ninety years, and begat Cainan:

5:10 And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters:

5:11 And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years: and he died.

5:12 And Cainan lived seventy years and begat Mahalaleel:

5:13 And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters:

5:14 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died.

5:15 And Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared:

5:16 And Mahalaleel lived after he begat Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters:

5:17 And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died.

5:18 And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch:

5:19 And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:

5:20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died.

5:21 And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah:

5:22 And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters:

5:23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years:

5:24 And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.

5:25 And Methuselah lived an hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lamech.

5:26 And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters:

5:27 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died.

5:28 And Lamech lived an hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son:

5:29 And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the
LORD hath cursed.

5:30 And Lamech lived after he begat Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and daughters:

5:31 And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died.

5:32 And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth.



References

1 Also known as Lawza. The girls' names were found from search and discussion forums. Does it really matter what they were called?! The story is the important thing.

2 There are two forms of this narration. One of the narrations say that Adam (PBUH) told Habeel to marry the twin sister of Qabeel, Eklema; and he told Qabeel to marry the twin sister of Habeel, Labuda. This is not wholly accepted by the Muslims since Qabeel having sex with his own sister seems an unlikely route for population increase since sex with your own sister is a grave sin in the sight of Allah. Incesticide is bad for the gene pool as well as morally - even though it is written it happened like this in some of our books and the books of the Jews and Christians. The second form of the narrations on this subject are attributed to Shia Muslims. They say Allah sent down two houris (celestial brides) to be their wives instead of them having sex with their own sisters. Allah says in the Koran "And He it is Who has created man from the water, then He has made for him blood relationship and marriage relationship, and your Lord is powerful." [25.54] and as you see the 'and' in this case are two separate things.

3 The correctness of this hadith is not accepted by all Muslims since one man's actions cannot be blamed onto someone else - we are all responsible for our own actions and no-one else's. But this hadith is also cited in another way in Shia books as well. Imam Ali (AS) says: "...Do not be like him who feigned superiority over the son of his own mother without any distinction given to him by Allah except the feeling of envy which his feeling of greatness created in him and the fire of anger that vanity kindled in his heart. Satan blew into his nose his own vanity, after which Allah gave him remorse and made him responsible for the sins of all killers up to the Day of Judgment...". (1) This is reported by Imam Ali in al-Khutbah al-Qasi`ah, 192 nahjul balagha, as well as (2) Ibn Tawus, Kitab al-yaqin, 196; (3) al-Kulayni, Furu` al-Kafi, IV, 168; (4) al-Saduq, al-Faqih, I, 152; (5) al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, I, 113; (6) al-Mawardi, A`lam, 97; (7) See al-Tehrani, al-Dhari`ah, VII, 204. But, still, not all Shia hadith are Sahih and neither are Sunni hadith so we should ask the people of knowledge on their opinion.

This Hadith can be refuted by what Allah says: "And whoever commits a sin, he only commits it against his own soul; and Allah is Knowing, Wise." [Holy Koran 4.111] and,

"Say: What! shall I seek a Lord other than Allah? And He is the Lord of all things; and no soul earns (evil) but against itself, and no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another; then to your Lord is your return, so He will inform you of that in which you differed." [Koran 6.164].

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